The expulsion from the uterus of a living fetus before it reaches a viable age, or more commonly the expulsion of a dead fetus of recognizable size at any stage of the gestation period.
The opening between the uterus and the vagina.
Cesarean section (C-section)
Female parent, mother.
An organism in its early stages of development, especially before it has reached a distinctively recognizable form.
The periodic state of sexual excitement that immediately precedes ovulation and during which the female is most receptive to mating. In rats it occurs every 4-5 days and is not seasonal.
The term denoting irregular, reduction and cessation of estrus cycles due to disruption of hormones in the aged female rat. Can occur starting at 9-12 months of age, but more typically seen between 15-18 months of age.
The process by which birth occurs, beginning with contractions of the uterus and ending with the expulsion of the fetuses and the placentas.
The secretion of milk by the mammary gland that provides nourishment to the pups.
The degenerative changes with discoloration and softening of tissues, and eventual disintegration, of a fetus retained in the uterus after its death.
The act of pairing a male and female for reproductive purposes.
An infection of the uterus after delivery.
A nutritious fluid produced by the dam’s mammary glands for feeding their offspring.
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the contraction of uterine muscles during labor and facilitates lactation.
Oxytocin (injectable Pitocin)
The act or process of giving birth.
A temporary vascular organ joining the dam and fetus that transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus, and permits the release of carbon dioxide and waste products from the fetus.
Existing or occurring after birth.
Existing or occurring before birth.
Relating to a first pregnancy or birth.
Offspring (immediate descendants).
The term for rat offspring.
A profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance due to failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs.
Male parent, father.