There are several options for housing your pet rats. Whatever you choose keep in mind that the space you provide needs to be adequate for the number of rats housed. A rat’s home needs to be a safe place. It is important to make sure that the housing you choose has sturdy latches and is escape proof. This is especially true when there are other pets in the household that might harm the rat or if you have other rats of the opposite sex housed under the same roof. Get the largest environment that you can afford. Rats are happiest when they have plenty of room to explore, climb, and play.
Do not use hamster cages, habitrails, small plastic storage bins with lids, or 10-gallon aquariums as permanent housing for your rats.
Cleanliness is a must for rat housing. Providing a litter box will help to keep the cage cleaner and most rats learn quickly how to use them. Occasional wiping down of surfaces with a mild safe cleaning solution and changing cloth bedding as needed will keep the cage manageable in-between cleanings. Sterilization of the cage weekly will help eliminate odor, parasites, and bacteria.
If you can smell that the cage is dirty then it is past time for a cleaning. Ammonia buildup can cause damage to their delicate respiratory systems and is easily controlled with a proper cleaning schedule.
Once you have decided on the housing that is best for you and your rat, the next step is to purchase the items that will go into the cage. You will need a water bottle (two is better in case on gets a leak), proper bedding, hide away areas, toys, nutritional food, and accessories to provide a healthy and stimulating environment for your rat.
Whatever you choose for your rats home be sure to keep on hand a small cage or aquarium in case you have a rat that is ill or injured and needs to be kept isolated and quiet.
Choosing the environment
The most popular types of housing for rats are cages, aquariums, and homemade residences, each have pros and cons for both the people and the rats. Many breeders, or people with large colonies, use modified Sterilite bins for housing for both adults and for litters. When choosing be sure that the cage is appropriate for your home. If you live in an apartment (that allows rats) with no access to an outdoor hose you might want a cage that can fit into the shower stall for a good cleaning.
Also consider where you will be placing the rats new home. You will want to keep your rat in an area of the home that is away from direct sunlight and heavy drafts. Air movement will not hurt the rats, but excessive drafts such as from a close fan or placing the rats beneath the air conditioning/heating vent may adversely affect their body temperature.
The room will need to be dark at night for them. Rats do need periods of total darkness or else they can experience health and even reproductive problems.
The temperature of the environment is also an important consideration. Keeping the room temperature between 72-80 degrees will ensure their comfort. Temperatures that are too high, or low, can stress the rats and lead to health problems. Laboratory guidelines for temperature are 20-26 degrees Centigrade (68-78.8 degrees Fahrenheit). For breeding situations the recommended temperature is 24-26 degrees Centigrade (75.2-78.8 degrees Fahrenheit).
Placing the housing on a stand or a table is better than putting it directly on the floor. Your rat will be happier if it is placed in an area that allows interaction with you. Once the best spot is chosen you will need to make sure your new housing fits in the space you have designated for it.
Wire cages can be found in a variety of sizes, designs, and costs from both local pet stores and online resources. Typically the wire cage is the housing that most rat owners opt for. What you choose for bar spacing will depend on the size and age of your rats. Often ferret cages can be used for males and large females. Young rats and small females need spacing small enough to not allow them to escape or get stuck in the bars. The floors of the cage should be no larger than 0.5″ (1/2 inch) square.
There are advantages to having a wire cage for your rat. The most important one is ventilation, the open wires keeps ammonia fumes at a minimum. Cages also offer the rat more stimulation than some other types of rat housing by providing levels and ramps for them to move around on, places to hang accessories, and open access to daily interaction with the household.
Unfortunately there are also downfalls to cages. The rat’s food and litter tend to end up on the floor more than with other types of housing. Wire floors in cages can also cause foot injuries and can aggravate a condition known as bumblefoot in some rats. Solid flooring or the placing of linoleum, cloth, needlepoint mesh, or tiles on the wire floors can alleviate this problem.
Note: it is important, here, to note that there have been comments to the effect that galvanized steel wire cages when chewed on can cause zinc poisoning in rats. This has not been effectively proven. Powder-coated cages are preferred for ease of cleaning.
Glass aquariums come in a variety of sizes and heights. You will want to be sure that your aquarium has a cover that locks down to prevent your rat from escaping. Special water bottles must be obtained for tanks that are made specifically to hang from the edges. A 10-gallon tank is too small to house a rat and should only be used as a temporary environment or for a medical necessity. If an aquarium is used it should be at least a 40-60 gallon “long” type for a pair of rats.
Some people prefer to house their rats in aquariums. Many find them easier to clean than bulky cages. Bedding and food stay contained within the rat’s home instead of ending up on the floor. For people with multiple rats in small groups aquariums generally take up less room than cages. Also, aquariums tend to be less drafty than cages, which is often good if you have a hairless rat, a new litter, or an ill rat that needs to be kept warm and quiet.
Those who cite aquariums as a poor choice state valid reasons such as elevated ammonia fumes, lack of space, overheating, condensation, and breakage issues. It is true that aquariums need to be cleaned more often than cages for health purposes. And glass is certainly more prone to breakage than wire. A small aquarium is never an appropriate home for a rat. But a large aquarium that has toys and plenty of room can make an appropriate rat home as long as great care is taken to keep it clean.
A combo cage is a wire cage (aquarium topper) that fits on top of an aquarium. You don’t see them in the pet stores too often. With a combo cage you can add height and ventilation to your aquarium. They can also be useful for a breeding cage as you have a safe non-drafty “basement” for the little ones as well as a place for the mom to get away from time to time.
Homemade Cabinet Housing
Another housing option is the homemade cabinet style cages, sometimes referred to as “grotto” cages. With some tools, some materials, and a fair amount of motivation you can build a custom home for your rats.
One of the most wonderful things about the cabinet cage is the fact that the rat room remains much tidier than with a conventional cage system. Also with many levels it gives you plenty of places to hang toys and hammocks to keep your rats environment stimulating.
The cabinet cage does have its drawbacks. Being heavy it isn’t always easy to get it outdoors for a full sterilization and periodic cleaning (or when there are signs of illness or parasites) Adding wheels for moving can make this easier. One of the important things to keep in mind with a cabinet cage is that the wood needs to be protected. Bare wood can soak up urine and in time this can become rather unpleasant for you and unhealthy for the rat.
Modified bins, particularly large Sterlite bins, have become very popular with breeders. Information for modifications can be found on many different rat sites.
Some of the pros cited for using bins are: ease of cleaning, optimization of space by stacking, ease of storage when not in use, and the containment of bedding/litter.
Some of the cons are that interaction with owners is minimized, activities for enrichment may be lessened, climbing behavior is limited, floor surface is lesser than in cages with ramps and levels, and ventilation is lessened unless the bin has multiple “cut outs” to ensure air circulation.
Housing examples have been provided in the following figures:
Home made & cabinet cages:
The Dapper Rat “The Grotto”
Closet shelving cages
Round Cage Plans
Commercial Cage sites
Critter Nation Cages
Ferret.com (also Critter Nation Cages)
Fern Cage Manufacturing Co.
Cage Dimensions Calculator-
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