The section of the body between the chest and the reproductive organs that includes the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and spleen.
A circumscribed cavity filled with pus that can occur internally or just below the skin.
A sudden onset of signs/symptoms. May be severe and of short duration.
A term used to relate to the structure, diseases, etc. of glands.
A benign glandular tumor.
A microorganism that lives and grows in the presence of free oxygen.
Pertains to a range of behavior associated with aggressive encounters between members of the same species, including threat, attack, appeasement, or retreat. A broader term than just aggression.
Pain due to a stimulus which does not normally provoke pain.
Hair loss either by congenital/hereditary or acquired.
A condition where the blood cells, hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in blood are below normal.
A microorganism that can live and grow in the absence of free oxygen.
The loss of appetite.
Any disease that is spread from humans to animals (also referred to as reverse zoonosis). Anthroponotic (the adjective).
An agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria.
That produced by the body to counteract an antigen.
An external agent introduced that attacks the body resulting in the formation of antibodies.
The accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Having no signs or symptoms of illness.
u-‘tâ-pik / u-‘tâ-pee
Where a hypersensitive state or allergy has a hereditary predisposition. The tendency to develop an allergy is inherited, but a specific clinical form (food allergy) is not.
The presence of viable bacteria in the circulating blood stream.
An agent that is capable of killing or destroying bacteria.
An agent that is capable of inhibiting bacteria from growing or multiplying.
The appearance of malnutrition and wasting as in ill health.
The eating of caecotrophes, a soft feces having a higher level of water content, electrolytes and nitrogen directly from the rectum.
The upper portion of the skull, excluding the jaw and facial portions, that covers and protects the brain.
A cancer of the epithelial tissue.
To surgically remove the testes of a male animal.
Also see Neuter. Also see Orchiectomy.
The inflammation of cellular or connective tissue characterized by redness, swelling, and tenderness that signifies spreading infection.
That which persists over a long period of time, e.g., illness.
Majority of the large intestine and extends from small intestine to anus.
The presence of bacteria on or in tissue without indications of infection.
One of two organisms existing together where one of the participants (typically the symbiont) benefits but the other organism (typically the host) neither benefits nor is harmed.
An inflammation of the conjunctiva or surrounding tissue of eye.
The eating of excrement.
The part of the eyeball that is transparent through which light passes.
A congenital defect of the skull and spine which exposes the spinal cord.
A nitrogenous protein produced by muscle and released into the blood.
A developmental defect in which one or both of the testes fail to descend into the scrotum.
The propagation/growth of microorganisms in a special media.
A bluish / purplish discoloration due to a lack or poor oxygenation of the blood.
An abnormal membranous sac containing fluid or semisolid material. In parasitology it is a thick-walled protective membrane enclosing a cell, larva, or organism.
To remove dead or damaged tissue, foreign material, or debris from a wound to prevent infection and promote healing.
An undue loss of water and salts essential to body function. When the body’s output of water is greater than the intake.
A slowly developing increase in cell mediated immune response to a specific antigen.
An inflammatory condition of the skin that is characterized by redness, pain or itching.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
di-‘se-mu-`ney-ted `in-tru-‘vas-kyu-lur `ko-wag-yû-‘ley-shun
A condition that leads to the formation of microthrombi in the vascular system throughout the body, using up clot forming mechanisms and resulting in clot dissolving mechanisms being increased, which in turn leads to hemorrhaging (severe bleeding).
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces of tissue.
By which obstruction by a foreign object (such as plaque or a blood clot) occurs.
A foreign body (such as plaque or a blood clot) circulating in the bloodstream.
Introduction of fluid into the rectum and colon in order to stimulate bowel activity and emptying.
A removal of a mass in whole or part without rupture; e.g., relating to eyeball.
Inflammation of intestines.
The thin layer of tissue that covers internal organs, glands and other structures.
Slough, or a thick dry scab of tissue which can develop following a chemical burn by caustic or corrosive substances, or by a thermal burn. The skin tissue may appear brown or black in color, and feel leathery.
The cause or origin of a disease or condition.
The act of putting to death in a painless manner for reasons of mercy.
An increase in the severity of a disease.
The surgical removal of tissue.
First Pass Metabolism
This refers to drugs that enter the portal blood supply after they are absorbed from the small intestine and are exposed to enzymes in the liver.
If a large portion of the drug is metabolized in this “first pass” through the liver, the drug is then said to have a “first pass effect” , and only a smaller portion of the absorbed dose will enter into the systemic circulation.
Part of the peripheral nervous system, it is a group of neuronal cell bodies.
A disease of the eye where there is increased intraocular pressure, resulting in optic nerve atrophy and blindness.
A term used in “Gram’s method” to identify bacteria that lose the violet color of the stain used, taking on the color of the counterstain.
A term used in “Gram’s method” to identify bacteria that retain the violet color of the stain used.
In reference to wound healing: pink to red, moist tissue that contains new blood vessels, collagen, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells.
The longest most coarse hairs forming the top coat, and which add sheen to the coat. These hairs become more erect (making the coat appear ruffled) when the rat is stressed, ill, or in pain.
A tear gland, located rostral and ventral to the eyeball. An accessory lacrimal gland.
A collection of blood within soft tissue that results in swelling
That which pertains to the microscopic exam of cells.
The microscopic study of the appearance and behavior of tissues.
The overgrowth of dead and dying cells on the outer most layer of skin.
An abnormal increase in the number of cells occurring in tissue or organs.
Disease without a recognizable cause.
Immunoglobulin gamma E (IgE)
`im-joo-now-‘glâb-yû-lin ‘ga-mu ee
One type of closely related though not identical proteins. A reaginic antibody generally present in increased levels in allergies. Reacts with a specific antigen for which it is produced. Attaches to cells that become sensitized to the allergen and causes a release of histamine.
An overgrowth of microorganisms that are capable of tissue destruction and invasion, and accompanied by local or systemic signs.
The body’s defense to tissue injury. It involves the increase of blood flow and facilitates the cleanup of a wound. It is accompanied by increased heat to the area, redness, swelling and pain.
A passage in the lower anterior abdominal wall.
Meaning local, in position, or confined.
The system pertaining to skin and its appendages such as hair, claws, and nails.
The inversion, invagination, enfolding, telescoping of one segment of the intestine into the lumen of an immediately adjacent segment of intestine. Produces recurring attacks of increasing cramping abdominal pain. Distended abdomen and diarrhea can present. Gangrene of the intestine and death can ensue if not treated quickly.
ke ‘ loid
This is a mass of scar tissue that can occur at the site of a cut.
They can be of various shapes and sizes. They are often seen raised above the surface of the skin and may extend beyond the original site of injury.
They are a result of the overproduction of fibrous connective tissue in the inner layer of skin (called the dermis).
They can occur after the skin has been injured by a laceration or by surgery. They can also appear spontaneously. While keloids can be surgically removed, it is not uncommon for them to reappear at a later time.
An inflammation involving both the cornea and the conjunctiva of the eye.
The three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord in vertebrates.
The movement of cells, as in cancer, from a point of origin to other places within the body.
The death of tissue.
New, abnormal growth of tissue that serves no useful purpose.
An examination after an animal has died used to determine the cause of death and the characteristics of the disease/injury that caused it.
( *note: autopsy is the term used to denote a human performing a post-mortem examination on one of its own species.)
Surgery to remove the reproductive organs, sterilizing the patient. Also called spaying (if female) or castration (if male).
Orchiectomy (also spelled Orchidectomy)
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
See castration or neuter.
Orchis / Orchid
‘awr-kis / ‘awr-kid
A firm, elevated, and circumscribed bump less than 1 cm. It may precede vesicular or pustular formation.
A plant or animal that lives on another living organism.
Refers to medication being given SQ, IM, IP, or by IV injection, and not going through the digestive or GI tract.
A sign or symptom which is so characteristic of a disease that it makes the diagnosis.
Study of disease, its cause, process, effect and consequence.
pi-‘dung-kul / pi-‘dung-kyoo-lur
That which has a stem or stalk.
A bristling of hairs.
The projected part of the external ear.
Any patch or flat area such as fibrous plaque. May be composed of calcium, phosphorus, salts, polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, or collagen depending on location found inside or outside of the body.
A mass of swollen and excessively developed or tumorous membrane attached to tissue by a base and a stalk.
A reddish brown or rust colored tear secretion produced by the Harderian gland.
A painful, persistent, and abnormal erection of the penis not associated with mating.
Ability to sense position, location, orientation, movement of body and its parts, e.g. sensation on body, sense of movement, equilibrium.
A malignant tumor of connective tissue.
The accumulation of fluid build up at an incision site.
A growth attached directly by the base having no peduncle(stem/stalk) as with a polyp.
Circular muscle that constricts a passage or closes an orifice.
To surgically remove the ovaries and uterus of a female animal.
A term that means “beneath the skin” as in a subcutaneous injection.
The piloerection (bristling) of guard hairs.
A group of signs and symptoms that collectively characterize a particular disease or condition associated with a pathological process.
example: Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis
The male sex glands that produce and store sperm, and the body’s source of male hormones, such as testosterone. Also known as testicles.
Also see orchid/orchis.
A lump or clump.
Formation or presence of a blood clot.
A contraction of cervical or “neck” muscles that causes the head to tilt.
An abnormal malignant or benign mass of tissue that arises without obvious cause from cells of preexistent tissue, is not inflammatory and may or may not vary from skin color, and possesses no physiologic function.
A break, open sore/lesion, of the skin with loss of epidermis and dermis, which may have a concave appearance, vary in size, and which may produce pus.
eg: Merck Source Health Library
A fatty degeneration of a nerve fiber that has been severed from its nutritive centers.
The sound that arises from difficulty in breathing when air tries to move through partially obstructed or narrowed airway passages. May have continuous high pitched squeak, or musical quality to it.
An injury to the body that involves laceration or breaking of a membrane usually damaging underlying tissues.
Any disease spread from animals to humans. Zoonotic (the adjective).
An auditory sebaceous (fatty) gland that opens into each external ear canal.