Clomipramine hydrochloride / Clomicalm

Brand

Veterinary: Clomicalm

Veterinary Availability:

  • Tablets: 5 mg, 20 mg, 80 mg

Brand

Human: Anafranil

Human Availability:

  • Capsules: 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg

Pharmacology

Clomipramine hydrochloride is a dibenzazepine-derived tricyclic antidepressant. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to have the ability to increase the amounts of both norepinephrine and serotonin (neuro-transmitters that play important roles in controlling mood and other processes such as eating, sleeping,and pain ) by blocking reuptake into presynaptic neurons in the central nervous system.

The drug is well absorbed in the GI tract, but has extensive first pass metabolism which limits the amount of drug that enters the systemic circulation. It is metabolized primarily in the liver, distributes well into fatty tissue, and is excreted in breast milk, urine and feces.

*Note: the half life of the drug may increase after multiple dosing’s.

Indications

Used cautiously in rats with hyper-dominance aggression.

Drug Interactions or Contraindications

  • Avoid giving drug with barbiturates or other CNS depressants as depressant effects may be exaggerated.
  • Do not use together with MAO inhibitors, may cause seizures, and death.
  • Avoid giving with cimetidine, may enhance antidepressant effect.
  • Avoid use with St. John’s wort, SAM-e, and yohimb.
  • Use cautiously in rats with a history of seizure activity as seizure threshold may be lowered.

Adverse Reactions

The drug has the ability to exhibit anticholinergic side effects inhibiting involuntary functions mediated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

CV: disturbances in heart rhythm.

CNS: lethargy, nervousness, seizures.

GI: changes in appetite, reduced intestinal motility, hard stools, or diarrhea.

GU: difficulty urinating or having urine retention or increased potential for urinary tract infection.

Skin: pruritus (itching ), skin dryness.

Dosage Recommendations

Initial dose 0.5 mg/lb, PO (orally), q12hrs (twice daily), and may increase to 1 mg /lb, PO, q12hrs  17

or

16 mg/kg to 32 mg/kg, PO, q12hr  41, 42

Considerations

  • Do not stop drug abruptly.
  • Increase fiber in diet if needed for hard stool.
  • Avoid medicating rat with over the counter medications or herbal supplements without first checking with a veterinarian.
  • Possible hypertensive episodes during surgery are possible with use of this drug. If rat is scheduled to have a surgical procedure, gradually discontinue drug several days before procedure.
  • Store tablets/capsules at room temperature in a dry place.

Cross-references

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