## Conversions and Calculations

### Useful Abbreviations

a.c. before meals
p.c. after meals
PO by mouth
IM intramuscular
SQ or SC subcutaneous
IV intravenous
BW body weight
IP intraperitoneal
susp. suspension
gtts drops
gm gram
mg milligram
ug or mcg microgram
gr grain
cc cubic centimeter
ml milliliter
tab tablet
Tbsp tablespoon
tsp teaspoon
h or hr hour
SID once a day
BID twice a day
TID three times a day
q4h every 4 hours
h.s. at bedtime
prn as needed

### Weight Equivalents

1 lb = .454 kg = 454 gm = 16 oz
1 kg = 2.2 lbs = 1000 gms
1 gr. = 64.8 mg.
1 mg = 1000 mcg (ug)
1 mcg = 1000 ng (nanograms)
1 oz = 28.4 gms
1 gm = 1000 mg = 15 gr = 0.0022 lbs
0.05 gm = 50 mg = 3/4 gr
0.03 gm = 30 mg = 1/2 gr
0.015 gm = 15 mg = 1/4 gr
0.001 gm = 1 mg = 1/80 gr

### Sample Weight Conversions

To convert kilograms (kg) to pounds (lbs): Multiply the number of kilograms by 2.2
Example:
2 kg x 2.2 = 4.4 lbs
5 kg x 2.2 = 11 lbs
To covert pounds (lbs) to kilograms (kg) can be done either of two different ways:
——Divide the number of pounds by 2.2
Example:
2 lbs / 2.2 = 0.9 kg
2.2 lbs / 2.2 = 1 kg
——Multiply the number of pounds by 0.454
Example:
2 lbs / 0.454 = 0.9 kg
2.2 lbs / 0.454 = 0.99 or 1.0 kg (if rounding off)
To convert grams (g) or (gm) to pounds (lb). Multiply the number of grams by 0.0022
Example:
454 gm x 0.0022 = 0.99 lb or 1.0 lb (if rounding off)
Example:
1000 gm x 0.0022 = 2.2 lbs
To convert pounds (lb) to grams (gm) or (g). Multiply the number of pounds by 454
Example:
2 lbs x 454 = 908 gm

### Volume Equivalents

1 gal = 4 qts = 8 pts = 128 fl oz = 3.785 L = 3785 mL
1 qt = 2 pts = 32 fl oz = 946 mL
1 pt. = 2 c (cup) = 16 fl oz = 473 mL
1 c (cup) = 8 fl oz = 240 mL = 16 Tb (tablespoons)
1 fl oz. = 30 mL
1 Tb = 15 mL = 3 tsp (teaspoons)
1 tsp = 5 mL
4 L = 1.057 gal
2 gtts (drops) = 0.1 mL
1 qtt (drop) = 0.05 mL

### Calculation Setups

Need a little help in figuring the dosage or volume needed? Here are a couple of formulas for you to follow.
I also find that the second formula helps when you wish to know correct dose per weight. See the second example in the second formula.
First Formula:
(desired)/available x volume = what you will give
Second Formula:
(mg avail)/in mL avail x (mg wanted)/? mL = mL you will give
(recommended dosage)/recommended weight = (? desired dosage)/your rat’s weight

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