References and Resources

References and Formularies

(1) Carpenter, J., Mashima, T., & Rupiper, D. (2001). Exotic Animal Formulary (2nd Edition). St. Louis: Saunders.
(2) Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. (1997). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.
(3) Ducommun, D. (2000). Rat Health Care, 6th Edition. Rat Fan Club.
(3) Ducommun, D. (2001). Rat Health Care, 7th Edition. Rat Fan Club.
(4) Isaksen, M., & Mabley, D. (n.d.). Drug Usage Chart for Rats. Retrieved March 12, 2008, from
(5) Donnelly, T. (2002, March 22). Rats, Rabbits and Rodents. TimeOut Seminar , Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Brisbane, QLD. Rat Guide consultant.
(6) Plumb, D. (1999). Veterinary Drug Handbook (Third Edition). Ames: Iowa State University Press.
(7) Cooper, J. (1985). Manual of Exotic Pets, Revised Edition. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
(8) Johnson-Delaney, C. (1996). Exotic Companion Medicine Handbook for Veterinarians (2 Vol. Set). Lake Worth, FL: Zoological Education Network.
(9) Flecknell, P., Swindle, M., & Laber-Laird, K. (1996). Handbook of Rabbit and Rodent Medicine (Pergamon Veterinary Handbook Series). Great Britain: Pergamon Pr.
(10) Flecknell, P., & Waynforth, H. (1992). Experimental and Surgical Techniques in the Rat, Second Edition. Toronto: Academic Press.
(11) Plunkett, S. (2000). Emergency Procedures for the Small Animal Veterinarian. Philadelphia: Saunders Ltd.
(12) Empirical, based on use and recommendation of more than one veterinarian trained in the care of rats and other rodents.
(13) Goel, V., Chang, C., Slama, J., Barton, R., Bauer, R., Gahler, R., Basu, T. (2002). Echinacea stimulates macrophage function in the lung and spleen of normal rats. J Nutr Biochem, 13(8), 487. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
(14) Ruud M., (n.d.). For meds and doses safely used in pregnant does and rats under 4 months. Retrieved March 12, 2008, from
(15) Katzung, B. (2001). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 8th Edition. USA: McGraw-Hill Medical.
(16) Greg Rich, DVM. Personal Email. West Esplanade Veterinary Hospital.
(17) Larissa Ladyko B.V.Sc. Personal Email. Indooroopilly Veterinary Clinic, Australia.
(18) Michael Hutchinson, DVM. Personal Communication. Animal General, Cranberry Township, PA. Rat Guide consultant.
(19) Hawk, C., & Leary, S. (1999). Formulary for Laboratory Animals, Second Edition. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
(20) Borchard, R., Barnes, C., & Eltherington, L. (1990). Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals : A Handbook. Third Edition. Caldwell, NJ: Telford Press.
(21) Vanessa Pisano, DVM. Personal Email Communication and Rat Guide consultant. VC North Springs Animal Hospital, FL.
(22) Golder, F. (n.d.). Rat Analgesics. Retrieved March 12, 2008, from
(23) C.A.B.H (Central Animal Breeding House University of Queensland). Pinjarra Hills; University of Queensland Physiology and Pharmacology Animal House; Griffith University Animal House ; Queensland Health Scientific and Pathology Services George Street Brisbane.
(24) Steve Diehl, DVM
(25) Paul Palmatier, DVM, Heritage Veterinary Hospital, Santa Rosa.
(26) Carpenter, J. (2005). Exotic animal formulary (Third Edition). St. Louis: Saunders.
(27) Plumb, D. C. (2008). Plumb’s veterinary drug handbook (6th ed.). Stockholm, Wis.: PharmaVet ;.
(28) Harkness, J., & Wagner, J. (1995). Biology and medicine of rabbits and rodents Fourth Edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
(29) Keeble, E. J., & Meredith, A. (2009). BSAVA manual of rodents and ferrets. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
(30) Anthony Pilny, DVM, DABVP-Avian Certified. Avian & Exotic Pet Medicine and Surgery. Veterinary Internal Medicine and Allergy Specialists. NYC, NY. Rat Guide consultant.
(31) Sharp, P., & La Regina, M., &amp Suckow, M. (1998). The Laboratory rat. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
(32) Ramsey, I. K. (2008). BSAVA small animal formulary (6th ed.). Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
(33) Nathalie Baldwin, DVM. Columbus, OH. Rat Guide consultant.
(34) Carpenter, J. W. (2012). Exotic Animal Formulary (4th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders.
(35) Quesenberry, K., & Carpenter, J. (2012). Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents, Clinical Medicine and Surgery (Third Edition ed.). St. Louis: Saunders.
(36) Thomas M. Donnelly, DVM, DACLAM. Personal Email, Warren Institute |712 Kitchawan Rd, Ossining NY 10562-1118 USA.
(37) Oglesbee, B. L. (2011). Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal (2nd ed. pp.642). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
(38) Mayer, J. & Donnelly, TM. (2013). Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. St. Louis: Saunders
(39) Adele Wharton, BVSc, MRCVS, CertGP (F&L), Locum Veterinary Surgeon. Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom.
(40) Jepson, L. (2009). Exotic Animal Medicine: A Quick Reference Guide. Edinburgh, London, New York, Oxford, Philadelphia, St Louis, Sydney, Toronto: Saunders Elsevier
(41) Carpenter, James W. (2018). Exotic Animal Formulary (5th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier.
(42) Hedley, Joanna. (2020). BSAVA Small Animal Formulary (10th ed.). Part B: Exotic Pets. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
(43) Sinclair, K. M. (2021). Rats and mice. Exotic Animal Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, 330–348.
(44) Carpenter J. W. & Harms C. A. (2023). Carpenter’s exotic animal formulary (Sixth). Elsevier.

Handbooks and Manuals

  • 2002 Physicians’ Desk Reference, 56th Edition. (2002). Montvale: Medical Economics / Thomson Healthcare.
  • Bergersen, B. (1979). Pharmacology in Nursing, Fourteenth Edition. St Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
  • Fetrow, C. W., & Avila, J. R. (2004). Professional’s handbook of complementary & alternative medicines (3rd ed.). Springhouse, Pennsylvania: Springhouse Corporation.
  • Fish, R., Brown, M., Danneman, P. J., & Karas, A. (Eds.). (2008). Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals (2nd ed.). Academic Press. doi:
  • Giguère, S., Prescott, J., & Dowling, P. (2013). Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary medicine (5th ed.). Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Gilbert, D. N., Moellering, R. C., & Sande, M. A. (2002). The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy, 2002 (32nd ed.). Hyde Park, VT: Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc.
  • Katzung, B. G. (2001). Basic and clinical pharmacology (8th ed.). New York: Appleton & Lange.
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. (1998). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. (2016). 11th ed. Kenilworth, New Jersey: Merck & Co.
  • Mycek, M., Harvey, R., Champe, P., & Fisher, B. (2000). Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Second Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Nursing 2000 Drug Handbook. (1999). Springhouse, PA: Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp.
  • Nursing 2007 Drug Handbook. (2006). 27th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Nursing 2016 drug handbook. (2016). 36th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
  • Nursing 2021 Drug Handbook. (2020). 41st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
  • Papich, M. G. (2016). Chloramphenicol. In Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs: Small and Large Animals (4th ed., pp. 148-150). Elsevier. doi:
  • Physicians Drug Handbook. (2003). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & amp; Wilkins.
  • Spratto, G., & Woods, A. (2001). PDR Nurse’s Drug Handbook 2002. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.

Monographs and Publications


  • EMEA. Praziquantel: Summary Report (1)–Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. (1996). Available online at: -report-1-committee-veterinary-medicinal-products_en.pdf (accessed August 7, 2020).
  • Echinacea

  • Goel, V., Chang, C., Slama, J., Barton, R., Bauer, R., Gahler, R., Basu, T. (2002). Echinacea stimulates macrophage function in the lung and spleen of normal rats. J Nutr Biochem, 13(8), 487. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  • Skelly, F. (1997, May 1). Herbal Help for Rat Respiratory Problems. Retrieved March 12, 2008, from
  • Goldenseal

  • Goldenseal. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2008, from
  • Goldenseal. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2008, from
  • Coenzyme

  • Coenzyme Q10. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2008, from
  • Antimicrobial

  • Boothe, D. (n.d.). Which Antimicrobial Should I Use? Optimizing Antibacterial Therapy for Small Animals Using the Professional Flexible Label. Retrieved from — Archived page from 2008-10-24 (via the Wayyback Machine)
  • Phenobarbital

  • Haugvicova, R., Bilkova, E., Kubova, H., Mares, P., (2002). Effects of classical antiepileptics on thresholds for phenomena induced by cortical stimulation in rats. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 54(7), 1011-5. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  • Mikati, M. A., Holmes, G. L., Chronopoulos, A., Hyde, P., Thurber, S., Gatt, A., Liu, Z., Werner, S., Stafstrom, C. E. (1994). Phenobarbital modifies seizure-related brain injury in the developing brain. Annals of Neurology, 36(3), 425-33. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  • Montanez, S., Kline, A. E., Gasser, T. A., Hernandez, T. D. (2000). Phenobarbital administration directed against kindled seizures delays functional recovery following brain insult. Brain Research, 860(1-2), 29-40. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  • Prasad, A., Williamson, J. M., Bertram, E. H. (2002). Phenobarbital and MK-801, but not phenytoin, improve the long-term outcome of status epilepticus. Annals of Neurology, 51(2), 175-81. Retrieved March 12, 2008.


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