The process by which a drug is transferred from the site of administration into the body’s blood, lymph, or tissue.
A result of drug therapy that is neither intended nor expected in normal therapeutic use and for which may cause significant, sometimes, life-threatening conditions.
A matter (or piece of information) that should be weighed or taken into account when formulating an opinion or plan.
To combine or mix tablets or capsules into a flavorful liquid or suspension to make it more palatable for the animal.
The transport of a drug across cell membranes which results in the accumulation of the drug in certain tissues.
The success, effectiveness or beneficial result of a treatment.
The loss of the drug from the site within the body. Some drugs will be metabolized when passing through the liver or other tissue will be metabolized. Other drugs may be eliminated directly when passing through the kidneys or other tissues of excretion.
First-pass effect / First-pass metabolism
The process whereby drugs administered orally are absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and carried through the hepatic portal vein to the liver, where some portion of the drug is metabolized (degraded, altered, inactivated or removing some of the drug) before it reaches the general circulation thus reducing some of its effect. With some drugs this can be avoided if the drug is designed to be given by IV, SQ, or IM administration.
Drugs delivered by breathing in with use of a machine or device. In general the drugs are rapidly absorbed.
Administration of a medication, into deep muscle, given by needle.
Pertaining to the eyes.
Drugs that are given by mouth that are able to withstand the acidic environment of the stomach. Absorption can be affected by gastric emptying and intestinal motility.
Medications that are over-the-counter which do not require a prescription.
Pearls of Wisdom (“pearls”)
A succinct or insightful saying. A piece of advice or moral precept.
The study of drugs in all their aspects.
A discipline concerned with the art, science , or practice of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs. A place where drugs are sold (e.g. drugstore). Also called an Apothecary.
SQ, SC, SubQ (Subcutaneous)
Pertaining to the treatment of a condition or disease. The healing properties of an agent (e.g., drug).
A chemically active substance which produces blistering on direct contact with the skin or mucous membrane.