Antimicrobials According to Site

The following is a list of antimicrobials as may be seen used based upon site of infection:

Respiratory Aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin or amikacin) as adjuvant to other therapies
Cephalosporins (e.g., Cefadroxil)
Clarithromycin
Clindamycin (anaerobes)
Chloramphenicol
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril)
Macrolides (Tylosin, or azithromycin)
Metronidazole (Flagyl-do not use when neurological disorder present)
Penicillins
Tetracyclines (e.g., tetracycline or doxycycline)
Trimethoprim/sulfas
Central Nervous System
Azithromycin
Cephalosporins (third generation best)
Choramphenicaol
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., Baytril)
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Penicillins
Trimethoprim/sulfas
Alimentary Tract
GI/Digestive Tract
Cephalosporins (e.g., Cefadroxil)
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril)
Metronidazole (Flagyl-do not use when neurological disorder present)
Trimethoprim/sulfa
Skin and Soft tissue
Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Clavamox)
Cephalosporins (e.g., Cefadroxil)
Clarithromycin
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril)
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril) + Metronidazole (Flagyl-do not use when neurological disorder present)
(polymicrobial-aerobic and anaerobic)
Trimethoprim/sulfa
Urinary Tract
Amoxicillin
Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Clavamox)
Cephalosporins (e.g., Cefadroxil)
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril)
Trimethoprim/sulfa
Note: best to reserve fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin/clavulanate (Clavamox) for more difficult to treat or persistent urinary infection.

Avoid aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin) due to nephrotoxicity if renal involvement is present.

Reproductive Tract
Clindamycin (anaerobes)
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril)
Trimethoprim/sulfa
Bacteremia/Septicemia
Aminoglycoside (e.g., gentamicin or amikacin) + a penicillin (e.g., amoxicillin) + metronidazole (Flagyl-do not use when neurological disorder present)
Aminoglycoside (e.g., gentamicin or amikacin) + a fluoroquinolone (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril) + metronidazole (Flagyl-do not use when neurological disorder present)
Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril) + amoxicillin + metronidazole (Flagyl-do not use when neurological disorder present)
Bone/Joints
Cephalosporin (e.g., cefuroxime or cephalexin)
Clindamycin + a cephalosporin
Fluoroquinolone (e.g., enrofloxacin/Baytril)

Any antimicrobial therapy should be based on assessment and recommendation of a licensed veterinarian.

Reference
  • Carpenter, J., Mashima, T., & Rupiper, D. (2001). Exotic Animal Formulary, 2nd Edition (pp.412-413). St. Louis: Saunders.
  • Carpenter, James W. (2018). Exotic Animal Formulary, 5th ed. (pp.641-643). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier.
  • Gilbert, D. N., Moellering, R. C., & Sande, M. A. (2002). The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy, 2002 (32nd ed.). Hyde Park, VT: Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc.
  • Katzung, B. G. (2001). Basic and clinical pharmacology (8th ed.). New York: Appleton & Lange.

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