Back to Antimicrobial Agents
Can be made into suspension.
Also comes as 22.7 mg/mL in 20 mL vials, or 5% solution in 20 mL vials for injection.
It has activity against some Gram-positive aerobes such as staphylococci, and a wide range of Gram-negative bacilli and cocci, which include klebsiella spp., pasteurella spp., pseudomonas spp., salmonella, and other organisms such as mycoplasma, and chlamydia.
Because the fluoroquinolones have shown variable activity against most Streptococci, as well as weak activity against many anaerobic bacteria, they are not generally recommended for use in treating these types of infections.
When taken orally enrofloxacin is well absorbed, and although the presence of food in the stomach may delay rate it does not seem to affect its absorption capability.
Enrofloxacin is well distributed throughout the body, and can be found in small concentrations in the cerebral spinal fluid. About 30-40% of the drug is metabolized to the human approved drug, ciprofloxacin.
Enrofloxacin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic mechanisms, as well as in breast milk.
It is known that the quinolone class of drugs have been shown to produce erosions of articular cartilage in weight bearing joints, as well as producing other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species, including juvenile rats (Kashida et al., 1997). However, evidence of cartilage abnormalities appear to be dose related (high dosages over extended period).
It is also important to note that although the use of fluoroquinolones have not been recommended for initial treatment in pregnant and nursing does or juvenile rats (under 4 months) due to the risks of cartilage abnormalities (Egerbacher et al., 2000), in cases where other antibiotics are not helping, or if the infection is deemed severe, the benefit of using fluoroquinolones (alone or in combination with other compatible antimicrobials) may, in fact, outweigh the risks.
Studies reported by Bayer, in their insert for enrofloxacin, reveal no evidence of carcinogenic or teratogenic effects in rats at higher doses of up to 50mg/kg.
Refer to Baytril insert by Bayer: http://www.bayerdvm.com/products/baytril/baytril.cfm
Theophylline blood levels may be increased when used with enrofloxacin.
Probenecid blocks tubular secretion of enrofloxacin and may cause an increase in its blood level and half life.
Synergism can occur when aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and extended-spectrum penicillins are used with fluorinated quinolones such as enrofloxacin.
GI: decreased appetite, diarrhea
Skin: Can cause tissue damage when given undiluted in IM or SQ injections in pet rats.
2.5 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg , PO , q12hr 2
Per Rat Health Care by Debbie Ducommun:”Best reserved for older animals and more severe infection”, Baytril 10mg/lb (20 mg/kg) , PO or SQ , BID 3
The following dosage guideline, for use of enrofloxacin in rats with serious respiratory infection suspected to have Mycoplasma as the pathogen, is recommended by Dr. Michael Hutchinson, DVM; Animal General, Cranberry Township, PA. 18 , and is based on his experience treating rats and current literature:
Treatment is initiated early, and aggressively, starting with 15 mg/kg for 10 days followed by assessment of the rat’s progress, and may be continued at that dose based on veterinary discretion.
For repeated respiratory infection unresponsive to enrofloxacin alone or when serious to advanced lung infection is present, treatment regimen incorporating enrofloxacin (Baytril) 15 mg/kg , PO , BID ,along with doxycycline, nebulized agents (Gentocin and albuterol), and dexamethasone can be initiated. For information on Dr.Hutchinson’s treatment regimen see articles: Mycoplasma or Pneumonia in the Health section of the Rat Guide.
Because Mycoplasma is probably never eliminated entirely from the airways, it often becomes necessary to use pulse antibiotic therapy (long term, intermittent, dosing), or a continuing maintenance schedule of antibiotics for rats with chronic Mycoplasmosis.
Dr. Hutchinson has had some success with the long term, maintenance dosing of enrofloxacin 15 mg/kg BID PO (or in the presence of renal disease 8 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg BID) in conjunction with doxycycline 5 mg/kg BID PO, and based on his experience no discernible side effects have been noted.
For appropriate dosing in pulse antibiotic therapy for chronic illness, discuss with veterinarian
Note: see warning for young, pregnant or nursing rats in Pharmacology section above.
Also, in treating suspected polymicrobial infections, where a broader coverage may be needed, synergistic or combination drugs may be used. The following drugs may be seen used simultaneously with enrofloxacin: aminoglycosides (e.g., amikacin or gentamicin), or aminopenicillins (e.g., amoxicillin or ampicillin), or third generation cephalosporins, or clindamycin, or doxycycline (for mycoplasma), or metronidazole. 1
Posted on June 23, 2003, 14:17,
Last updated on September 11, 2012, 18:28
| Antimicrobial Agents