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Clindamycin phosphate (for injection)
Granules: Cleocin Pediatric (Clindamycin palmitate HCL granules for oral solution): 75 mg/5mL (15mg/mL) in 100 mL
Injectable: Cleocin Phosphate (Clindamycin Phosphate) 150 mg/mL in vial volumes 2 mL, 4 mL, 6 mL, 60 mL, 100 mL
Clindamycin has shown in vitro activity against most aerobic gram positive cocci, including Streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis), and Staphylococci (including penicillin-resistant staphylococci). It also shows activity against many of the anaerobic organisms such as Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides and Actinomyces. Other organisms that show some susceptibility include: Corynebacteria and Mycoplasma spp.
Rapidly absorbed in the gut, clindamycin is widely distributed into most tissues such as lungs, bone and joint, skin, heart muscle, and into body fluids with the exception of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), as well as penetrating abscesses and white blood cells. Only minimal concentrations of the drug are found in the CNS (central nervous system) in the presence of inflamed meninges. Clindamycin is distributed into breast milk. Although clindamycin has been shown to cross the placenta it revealed no evidence of impaired fertility, or harm to the fetus in rats or rabbits during reproductive toxicity studies, except at doses high enough to cause maternal toxicity (3).
The lincosamide class of antibiotics is one most associated with pseudomembranous colitis, when primarily given orally. Their use may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms such as clostridia and yeasts. However, in studies clindamycin has been shown to offer more complete and predictable absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, than does lincomycin, which is thought to reduce the chance of diarrhea by its use.
Even so, it is recommended to avoid administration of clindamycin in those species sensitive to the gastrointestinal effects of clindamycin, and in those species that are more tolerant of the drug, such as the rat, to administer probiotics concomitantly during and following treatment (refer to Considerations at the end of the monograph).
Because clindamycin is distributed in breast milk it is not recommended that it be given to animals that are nursing young due to the potential for GI effects.
Clindamycin is metabolized in the liver to active and inactive metabolites and excreted in urine and feces.
Rat and Dog Data: One year oral toxicity studies in rats and dogs at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day (13.6, 45.5 and 136.4 mg/lb/day) have shown clindamycin hydrochloride to be well tolerated. Differences did not occur in the parameters evaluated to assess toxicity when comparing groups of treated animals with contemporary controls. Rats administered clindamycin hydrochloride at 600 mg/kg/day (272.7 mg/lb/day) for six months tolerated the drug well; however, dogs orally dosed at 600 mg/kg/day (272.7mg/lb/day) vomited, had anorexia, and subsequently lost weight. (1)
Clindamycin hydrochloride has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, caution should be exercised if administering concomitantly.
Clindamycin half-life may be prolonged in the presence of hepatic disease. Use cautiously in rats with hepatic disorders.
Avoid use, or select a more appropriate alternative antibiotic for use in rats that are nursing young.
GI: colitis, diarrhea
*Note: in the event of diarrhea, it is advised to stop the antibiotic and contact the veterinarian. Do not give anti-diarrhea medications without first contacting a veterinarian.
7.5 mg/kg to 25 mg/kg, PO, BID or TID as determined by veterinarian based on severity of disease being treated. 33
*Note: duration of treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride products may be continued up to a maximum of 28 days (or longer in penicillin-resistant staphylococcal infection) if clinical judgment indicates. However, it has been recommended that treatment of acute infections should not be continued for more than three or four days, based upon assessment by a veterinarian, if no response to therapy is seen.
Posted on January 17, 2014, 12:31,
Last updated on May 14, 2016, 19:38
| Antimicrobial Agents