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Albuterol Sulfate

Respiratory Drugs
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(salbutamol sulfate)

Brand

Nebulization: Airet, Albuterol, Salbutamol, Proventil, Ventolin

Oral: Liquid Ventolin (salbutamol sulfate)

Availability

Inhalation capsule: 200 mcg
Inhalation solution: 0.083%, and 0.5%
(Note: Unit-dose plastic vial containing Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083%, contains 2.5 mg/3 mL of normal saline. Equivalent to 0.5 mL of the 0.5% albuterol diluted in 3mL of normal saline.)
Oral syrup: 2 mg/5mL

Pharmacology

A sympathomimetic, beta2 agonist, bronchodilator that stimulates cyclic AMP production through activation of adenyl cyclase. It relaxes bronchial, uterine and vascular smooth muscle, alleviating bronchospasm.

Alubuterol possess minimal influence on beta1 receptors of the heart.

It is rapidly absorbed, does not cross blood brain barrier; but does cross placental barrier.
Its effects may last 3-6 hours after inhalation therapy. The drug is metabolized in the liver.

Indications

Used to reduce bronchospasm.

Drug Interactions or Contraindications

This drug should be used with caution when diabetes, cardiac disease, and seizure disorders are present.

In very large doses it is teratogenic in rodents and should not be used in pregnant animals.

Beta-blockers may antagonize the actions of albuterol. MAOI’s may potentiate the vascular effects as well as tricyclic antidepressants. When used with digoxin may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias.

Adverse Reactions

CV:  increased heart rate.

CNS:  restlessness, tremors.

Dosage Recommendations

Dosage offered here is strictly empirical and is based on dosage calculation used in premature human infants. (Reference RMCA article:The Use of Albuterol Treatments in rats. Please discuss all dosage calculations with a veterinarian prior to any treatment.

Nebulized dosage:  0.2mL of 0.5% albuterol in 2mL of saline. Decrease the dosage to 0.1 mL albuterol in 2ml saline for a rat under 250 grams, or in elderly rats where lung damage and/or heart conditions may pose a greater risk to increase side effects, is recommended.

Frequency of treatment recommendation: three times a day and decreasing the number of treatments per day as the rat improves. Extend treatments for two days after breathing is normal.

For oral dosing of the 2 mg/5ml Liquid Ventolin:
0.1 mg/kg, PO, TID (three times per day or every 6 hours). Dosing based on children 2-6 years. Use has been 0.1 mL (0.04mg) three times a day for rats weighing 400 gm. to 700 gm. 12

Albuterol in Treatment Regimen

The following is a dosage recommendation by Dr. Michael Hutchinson, DVM; Animal General, Cranberry Township, PA.. 18, for the use of Albuterol along with gentocin by nebulization in a treatment regimen for chronic and repeated respiratory infection, and serious to advanced lung infection not responding to enrofloxacin and doxycycline alone:

    Nebulize 15 minutes, 2-3 times a day, for 14 days with the following mixture:
    8 mL sterile saline
    0.5mL gentocin injectable 100 mg/mL
    0.5mL Albuterol 0.083% Inhalation
    *Note excess mixture for nebulization can be refrigerated for up to 3 days.
For complete treatment regimen recommended by Dr. Hutchinson see articles Mycoplasma or Pneumonia in the Health section of the Rat Guide. Also see individual monographs for more information on the above drugs in the Medication section of the Rat Guide.
See Fig. 3: of First Aid Supplies in the Health section of the Rat Guide and in The Medical Corner of the RMCA site for information on nebulizer use and set up.
See Nursing Care section in articles Mycoplasma or Pneumonia for information on type of nebulizer and where to purchase.

Considerations

  • Use recommended nebulizers with a particle size of 0.5-5 micrometer when nebulizing bronchodilators, mucolytics or antimicrobials in rats. Nebulizers with a larger particle size that are used for humans or small animals will not be as effective in delivering the medication to the rat.
  • Store medication at room temperature and away from moisture.

Posted on June 23, 2003, 16:43, Last updated on September 20, 2010, 15:11 | Respiratory Drugs



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